Poster Session

#1

Rapid test combining a quantitative G6PD assay and a measurement of hemoglobin concentration on a single capillary-driven microfluidic chip

M. Rocca (1,2), Y. Temiz (1), M. L. Salva (1,2), S. Castonguay (3), T. Gervais (3),
C. M. Niemeyer (2), E. Delamarche (*1)

1) IBM Research Europe – Rüschlikon, Switzerland, 2) Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) – Institute for Biological Interfaces, Karlsruhe, Germany, 3) École Polytechnique de Montréal (EPM) – Department of Engineering Physics, Montréal, Canada

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Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an inherited metabolic disorder of red blood cells affecting more than 400 million people worldwide mostly in Africa and south Asia, where malaria is endemic. Primaquine medication, a very efficient anti-malaria drug, can trigger hemolytic anemia in people with G6PD deficiency. Hence, testing for G6PD deficiency before prescribing a specific anti-malaria drug can save human lives. Moreover, being an X-linked genetic trait, G6PD deficiency causes a variety of G6PD activities in females, making it difficult to be identified with a qualitative rapid test. In this work we present a bioassay architecture to perform a quantitative G6PD assay and a measurement of hemoglobin concentration on a single capillary-driven microfluidic chip (Fig. 1a-b). We use a self-coalescence module (SCM) to run a G6PD assay, a positive and a negative control simultaneously on the same chip (Fig. 1c). The SCM is a powerful microfluidic module for resuspending reagents homogeneously and avoiding concentration gradients (Gökçe et al., Nature 2019). Fluorescence measured on the chip correlates linearly with the concentration of G6PD in spiked blood samples (Fig. 1d). Hemoglobin concentration is measured by absorbance and can be determined well within the clinically relevant dynamic range (Fig. 1e). The assay was tested using commercially available G6PD controls and was able to distinguish between normal, intermediate and deficient enzyme activity.

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#2

Electrochemical Detection and Quantification of CRP in a Lateral Flow Assay

Petruzzi Loric, Maier Thomas, Hainberger Rainer

AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Vienna, Austria

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Lateral Flow Assays (LFA) are diagnostic devices that enable medical doctors, healthcare personnel, and patients to quickly produce a reliable and low-cost testing result. While classical optical LFAs based on nanoparticle labels were originally developed as qualitative tests, efforts have been made to also obtain quantitative results by taking advantage of progress in imaging sensor technology. However, these approaches require special hardware, which limits their usefulness, especially in decentralized medical care settings.

To overcome these limitations, we aim at the development of a fast, affordable, and easy-to-use quantitative multiplexed electrochemical LFA (EC-LFA), with the vision to provide a self-contained test strip that can be read out contactless via mobile phone.

The electrochemical detection is achieved by using an enzyme-labelled conjugate in an immuno-based assay. In our work, we have studied the influence of distinct parameters such as the nature of the enzymatic system, the type of materials used to build the device, the sensor characteristics as well as the effect of the biomolecules involved. These efforts were made to allow the recording of the most reliable signal for quantification.

We recently demonstrated successful multiplexing in EC-LFAs, allowing a quantification of the analyte as well as the detection of a control line using a sensor design with 4 working electrodes. We have shown results of the assay in both, buffer and saliva.

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#3

Complex Nucleic Acid Hybridization Reactions inside Capillary-Driven Microfluidic Chips

Marie L. Salva (1,2), Marco Rocca (1,2), Yong Hu (1), Emmanuel Delamarche (2*), Christof M. Niemeyer (1*)

1) Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) – Institute for Biological Interfaces 1, Karlsruhe, Germany
2) IBM Research Europe, Rüschlikon, Switzerland

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DNA hybridization reactions play an important role in many (bio)chemical applications. For diagnostic purposes, a signal amplification is often required, which is typically achieved with the help of enzymes and under non-isothermal conditions. This complicates the implementation of such test systems in microfluidic chips for the development of portable point-of-care diagnostics.

We present the implementation of two isothermal DNA hybridization reactions, the simple opening of molecular beacon structures and the complex reaction cascade of the clamped hybridization chain reaction (cHCR), in capillary-driven microfluidic chips (Fig. 1a). For this purpose, reagents were inkjet-spotted and dried on one side of a self-coalescence module (SCM) that occupies a footprint of ~7 mm2 of a ~0.4 × 2 cm2 passive silicon microfluidic chip (Fig. 1b-c). Chips were sealed by lamination and dried reagents dissolved with high precision using self-coalescing flows in the SCM. As determined with fluorophore-labeled DNA probes, we showed the impact of the concentration of a DNA initiator on the fluorescence signal intensity for both reactions. The hybridization reactions enable a signal amplification for detecting as little as 0.24 μM of DNA in just ~2 min using only ~3 μL of sample (Fig. 1d) and the formation of a polymer in the SCM for the cHCR.

These performances suggest that combining cHCR with a SCM provides a powerful platform for performing complex reactions in self-powered microfluidics.

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#4

Optical sensor for glucose monitoring in cell cultures

Vitalijs Zubkovs (1), Georg Orawez (1), Ioannis Stergiou (1),
Ardemis A. Boghossian (2), Stefano Cattaneo (1)

1) Swiss Center for Electronics and Microtechnology (CSEM), Center Landquart, CH-7302 Landquart, Switzerland, 2) École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of chemical sciences and engineering, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland

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Glucose is the main source of energy for living organisms and it is commonly used as the nutrient in cell culturing. To sustain normal growth and minimize the risk of development pathologies in the cells, it is critical to control the concentration of glucose in cell culture media and maintain it within the physiological limits. As glucose is consumed by living cells during their proliferation its concentration should be monitored and maintained constant during the process. This calls for miniaturized, continuous monitoring devices, which can be integrated into cell culture incubators and bioreactors. Despite significant strides made in development of continuous glucose monitoring sensors, current commercial devices must be frequently recalibrated using off-line methods. Therefore, there is still a demand on the market for an autonomous sensor which could enable effortless monitoring of glucose in cell cultures.

We are developing a compact optical sensor for glucose monitoring in cell culture media. The sensor employs innovative sensing technology which was invented at EPFL[1,2]. This technology uses single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as optical transducers (Figure 1). A bio-engineered glucose-sensitive enzyme, glucose oxidase is site-specifically anchored onto the surface of the SWCNT using aromatic cross-linker molecules and forms a stable conjugate. The material is applied as a sensor coating in an optical device. A prototype of the sensor device is developed and integrated with the sensing material at CSEM. The SWCNT-based sensor technology has the potential to extend the life cycle of optical sensors for glucose monitoring[3].

[1] V. Zubkovs, N. Schuergers, B. Lambert, E. Ahunbay, A. A. Boghossian, “Mediatorless, reversible optical nanosensor enabled through enzymatic pocket doping”, Small (2017)
[2] V. Zubkovs, S.-J. Wu, S. Y. Rahnamaee, N. Schuergers, A. A. Boghossian, “Site-specific protein conjugation onto fluorescent single-walled carbon nanotubes”, Chemistry of Materials (2020)
[3] S. Kruss, A. J. Hilmer, J. Zhang, N. F. Reuel, B. Mu, M. S. Strano, “Carbon nanotubes as optical biomedical sensors”, Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews (2013)

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#5

Gold screen-printed electrode modified with self-assembled monolayer (SAM) as an impedimetric immunosensor for human cardiac troponin I detection

Elvira Guella (1,2), Nadezda Pankratova (1), Marc E. Pfeifer (1)

1) Institute of Life Technologies, School of Engineering, University of Applied Sciences and Arts of
Western Switzerland, Sion, Switzerland, 2) Department of Biological, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, University of Palermo, Italy

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Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) is one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. Cardiac biomarkers quantification is one of the most reliable criteria in AMI diagnosis. Among these biomarkers, Cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) is preferred for detection thanks to its sensitivity and specificity.

In the present study, a screen-printed electrode (SPE) based impedimetric immunosensor has been characterized for cTnI detection. Gold SPEs have been used as transducers and were modified with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) to facilitate anti-cTnI antibody immobilization. SAMs based on mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) and mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUDA) were evaluated. Following antibody immobilization via EDC/NHS crosslinking, the cTnI analyte was added. After each incubation step, the modified surface of the working electrode was characterized by faradic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and changes in the charge transfer resistance (Rct) were analyzed in the presence of a redox probe. Upon the addition of target protein, a remarkable change in Rct was observed, attributable to the formation of the antibody-antigen complex which hinders electron transfer across the transducer/sample interface. Importantly, no significant change in Rct was observed upon incubation with a non-target antigen as negative control. Despite of not yet sufficient LOD obtained, this preliminary work, if improved, forms a good basis for the development of a point-of-care device for AMI diagnosis.

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#6

Hydrogel loop-mediated isothermal amplification Development for Highly Sensitive Drug-Resistance Bacteria Detection

Zahra A. Halvorsen (ϯab) Akkapol Suea-Ngam (bϯ)  Helmut Knapp (a) Vincent Revol (a)
Stavros Stavrakis (b), Philip Howes (b) and Andrew J. deMello (*b)

a) CSEM (Swiss Center for Electronics and Microtechnology), Untere-Gründlistrasse 1, 6055 Alpnach Dorf, Switzerland. b) Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zürich, Vladimir Prelog Weg 1, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland.

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The digital droplet approach for nucleic acid quantification is one of the most impactful applications of microfluidics in the life sciences. Herein, we report a new diagnostics approach, combining hydrogel beads with loop-mediated isothermal amplification (HD-LAMP) for the detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a common drug-resistant pathogen. Acrylamide-hydrogel beads produced by a custom design step emulsification device were employed as templates for particle-templated emulsification. LAMP reagents and primers are diffused into the porous cross-linked polyacrylamide structure, before being encapsulated in an oil phase via shaking. Within 30 minutes of incubation of beads at 60 °C, the HD-LAMP procedure is able to detect the target mecA gene, with a concentration limit of detection of 1 fg/µL (1000 copies/µL), and a linear range from 10-1 to 102 pg/µL (R2 = 0.997). The method displays excellent selectivity against common bacteria, with no significant difference versus the gold-standard approach, polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This platform proves to be sensitive and robust, without the need for complex components and processing, achieving sensitive quantification demonstrating promise for application in field-deployable diagnostics.

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#7

Portable tool for analyzing male fertility based on the measurement of sperm concentration and motility

Tatiana Nogueira (1), Loris Gomez Baisac (1), Elena Najdenovska (2), Fabien Dutoit (2), Yulia Karlova (3), Alexandre Karlov (3), Olivier Cuisenaire (2), Laura Elena Raileanu (2), Adrien Roux (1)

1) Haute école du paysage, d’ingénierie et d’architecture (HEPIA HES-SO), Geneva, CH, 2) Haute école d’ingénierie et de gestion du canton de Vaud (HEIG-VD HES-SO), Yverdon-les-Bains, CH, 3) Akymed Ltd., Cheseaux-sur-Lausanne, CH

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The objective of this project is to design a low-cost portable device to carry out essential measurements of semen quality, such as concentration and motility of spermatozoa, outside laboratory conditions. The technology developed must guarantee a standardized, reliable, and rapid analysis that meets the medical and veterinary quality.

To ensure minimum cost and maximum accessibility of the device, we will only include the necessary optical, mechanical, and electronic parts. Preprocessing and analysis of the images will be carried out on a companion mobile application.

Aiming at achieving the objectives, we offer the following characteristics: (i) Compatibility with different microscopy disposable counting chambers slide. Use of a notched rule to simplify placement and cover other fields of view. (ii) Integration of an easy-to-use mechanical system to focus on cells. (iii) LED-based illumination, which allows sufficient contrast for cell detection. (iv) User-friendly interface to guide the acquisition and analysis processes (v) Integration of image processing techniques tailored to the quality of the acquired images. (vi) Accurate analysis of relevant parameters for concentration and motility based on the processed images.

The proposed solution differs from similar existing devices on the market by offering to analyze not only the concentration but also the motility of spermatozoa. We plan to use it for veterinary diagnostic purposes which will introduce another novelty.

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#8

POROUS STRUCTURE ASSISTED LATERAL FLOW IMMUNOASSAY FOR IMPROVED SENSITIVITY AND DETECTION LIMIT

Ye Tang (1,2), Hui Chai-Gao (1), Kurth Felix (1), Konstantinos Petropoulos (1), Davide Migliorelli (1),
Olivier Guenat (2), Silvia Generelli (1,*)

1) Swiss Center for Electronics and Microtechnology (CSEM, Landquart), Bahnhof Strasse.1, Landquart, Switzerland, 2) The University of Bern, ARTORG Center for Biomedical Engineering Research, Organs-on-Chip Technologies, Murtenstrasse 50, 3008 Bern, Switzerland
* Correspondence: silvia.generelli@csem.ch; Tel.: + 41 81 307 8139

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Lateral Flow Immuno Assays (LFIA) are a well-established technique that employis cellulose-based strips to detect target analytes in liquid samples. Since it is a simple, low-cost tool that provides immediate results without high-cost laboratory equipment and need of technical skills from the users, it has become an increasingly important point of care (POC) device in medical diagnostics and home testing . However, conventional colorimetric LFIA suffer from lack of sensitivity, due mainly to the analysis of limited sample volume and weak optical signal. Due to the low sensitivity, in most cases, LFIA is employed as a medical diagnostic tool for mostly qualitative and semi/quantitative detection.
In the present work, we report the development of a porous structure-assisted lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) strip for quantitative detection of IgG. The porous structure assisted LFIA strip shows a limit of detection of 0.01 ng/ml and a sensitivity range from 0.1 ng/ml to 100 ng/ml for the detection of IgG in buffer solutions, which was used as a model. We observed a noticeable improvement of sensitivity, a broader dynamic range and a lower detection limit compared to the analog LFIA strip without porous structure. The porous structure assisted LFIA was then successfully applied for the detection of IgG in human serum with a limit of detection as 0.02 ng/ml in a working range from 0.1 ng/ml to 100 ng/ml.

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#9

New lateral flow assay platform for low cost, rapid and sensitive detection of viral infection

Yves Blickenstorfer, Alexander Tanno, Vlastimil Jirasko, János Vörös

Laboratory of Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, ETH Zürich, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland

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The recent global pandemic with the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 illustrates the need for low cost, rapid, and accurate preventive tests, to minimize viral infection propagation.

The gold standard for the diagnosis of viral infection, polymerase chain reaction, provides high sensitivity but requires days to deliver the results to patients. Alternatively, rapid antigen tests based on the lateral flow sandwich assay provide results within minutes. In a positive test, gold nanoparticles accumulate on a test line and can be detected optically. However, millions of gold nanoparticles are required for a measurable optical signal. This limits the sensitivity and precludes, reliable early viral detection.

We have developed an alternative readout platform based on the electrochemical detection of gold ions generated by dissolving the captured gold nanoparticles (see Figure 1). The improved detection limit arises from the millions of gold ions each particle releases upon dissolution, combined with the low background signal in the absence of particles. Conventional electrochemical methods require the handling of toxic chemicals to dissolve the nanoparticles, which limits the application to a laboratory. We overcame this issue, via an in-situ electrochemical readout without the need of external reagents or the use of harmful substances. This technology improves the limit of detection of the assay significantly and will enable direct and rapid detection of viruses such as SARS-CoV-2.

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#10

Smartphone-based electrochemical detection of aflatoxin B1 in corn

Safiye Jafari (1,2), Davide Migliorelli (1), Loïc Burr (1), Shana J. Sturla (2), Silvia Generelli (1)

1) CSEM SA, center Landquart, Switzerland, 2) Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Health Science and Technology, ETH Zurich, Switzerland

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The recent global pandemic with the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 illustrates the need for low cost, rapid, and accurate preventive tests, to minimize viral infection propagation.

The gold standard for the diagnosis of viral infection, polymerase chain reaction, provides high sensitivity but requires days to deliver the results to patients. Alternatively, rapid antigen tests based on the lateral flow sandwich assay provide results within minutes. In a positive test, gold nanoparticles accumulate on a test line and can be detected optically. However, millions of gold nanoparticles are required for a measurable optical signal. This limits the sensitivity and precludes, reliable early viral detection.

We have developed an alternative readout platform based on the electrochemical detection of gold ions generated by dissolving the captured gold nanoparticles (see Figure 1). The improved detection limit arises from the millions of gold ions each particle releases upon dissolution, combined with the low background signal in the absence of particles. Conventional electrochemical methods require the handling of toxic chemicals to dissolve the nanoparticles, which limits the application to a laboratory. We overcame this issue, via an in-situ electrochemical readout without the need of external reagents or the use of harmful substances. This technology improves the limit of detection of the assay significantly and will enable direct and rapid detection of viruses such as SARS-CoV-2.

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#11

The role of diagnostic testing in the Canton of Valais in the context of socioeconomic implications of the COVID-19 pandemic

Anne‐Laure Kaufmann (1), Denis Prim (2), Rafael Weissbrodt (4), Alexandre Cotting (3), Djamel Aissaoui (4) and Marc E. Pfeifer (2)

1) Data Acquisition Unit, 2) Institute of Life Technologies, 3) Institute of Information Systems, and the 4) Institute of Health, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland, Sion, Switzerland

Download Poster Diagnostic testing for COVID‐19 disease has received a broad attention in society, especially during the
1st infection wave in spring 2020. The limited testing capacities, transmissibility of SARS‐CoV‐2 as well
as the absence of a facile sample collection method and adequate POC diagnostic devices has raised
both concerns and the need for innovation. Mandated by the HES‐SO Valais‐Wallis we have conducted
a workshop with stakeholders from different institutions such as nursing home, border control, asylum
center, security agency, government public protection office, penitentiary and hospital, in order to
investigate organizational, logistical, data management, psychological and ergonomic requirements
and constraints particularly during the early lockdown relaxation phase. After a first analysis of the
workshop data, a questionnaire was designed and sent to the participants and their organizations to
refine and validate the replies. Among the main findings of our research following items stand out:

 

1) Diagnostic testing is seen as an important tool to help ensure the safety of employees and to manage human resources.
2) Notably, self‐testing and testing by staff are favored over services by an external provider.
3) Ease‐of‐use, assay performance (e.g. sensitivity), reliability, measurement speed and especially portability are viewed as important.
4) The majority of the participants expressed the opinion that test costs exceeding CHF 10.‐ should be covered by the public domain.

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#12

cMyC Can Rule-out, Faster and More Efficiently, Suspected MI Chest Pain Patients Than Troponins

Tobias Volker (1), Johan Ubby (1), Charles Delany (1), Tom Kaier (2), Michael Marber (2)

1) Expand Healthcare Consulting GmbH, Baar, Switzerland, 2) King’s College London BHF Centre, The Rayne Institute, St Thomas’ Hospital, London, UK

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The European Society of Cardiology Guidelines includes detection and/or change in troponin as a required criterion for Acute Myocardial Infarction diagnosis. Measurement of a biomarker of cardiac injury, preferably high-sensitivity cardiac Troponins (hs-cTn), is mandatory in all patients with suspected non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. The 2020 ESC Guidelines also mention that a new biomarker, cardiac Myosin Binding Protein C (cMyC) is more abundant than cardiac troponin and may therefore provide value as an alternative to, or in combination with, cardiac troponin. Following cardiac muscle necrosis, cMyC is released into the bloodstream faster and in higher concentrations. Using a 10 ng/L cut-off, we demonstrated that cMyC safely ruled out more than twice as many patients with a single test at arrival to the ED, compared to hs-cTnI. Providing a rapid (≤ 15 minutes) time to result, easy to run POC cMyC assay at the emergency testing site, would further potentiate the benefits of cMyC rule-out. This would enable faster triage of patients, the reduction of patients in the indeterminate zone, reduce healthcare costs, and overall more efficient use of precious resources of emergency services.

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#13

STROKECheck: the rapid test that revolutionize the acute stroke management

Alberto Schena, Rosa M. Delgado, Joan Montaner, Jean-Charles Sanchez

ABCDx SA, Campus Biotech Innovation Park, Av. de Sécheron 15, 1202 Geneva

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Stroke is the second leading cause of death in the western world and increasingly deadly worldwide. It can hit elderly people as well as young adults and likely cause severe disabilities in the survivors. Treatments for the 80% of the stroke patients that got an Ischemic Stroke (IS) are available, particularly thrombolysis or thrombectomy. However, such treatments are administered late due to the lack of a rapid diagnosis system and the need of a CT-scan. Such delays in the treatment are responsible for higher mortality and permanent disabilities.

The portable quantitative lateral flow assay StrokeCheck allows to precisely diagnose an ischemic stroke directly in the ambulance, with few drops of blood and within 10 minutes. This allows to treat the patient 1 to 2 hours earlier compared to current practices, improving the patient’s chances 2x of becoming asymptomatic, 3x to return independent, 4x of survival.

STROKECheck detects a patented combination of acute brain injury biomarkers that are released in the blood stream following an IS. STROKECheck is the result of more than 10 years of fundamental proteomic research and has been validated on over 500 stroke patients, attaining the correct identification of >60% of patients having IS versus Intra-Cranial Hemorrhage. The prospective multi-centric study BIOFAST proved the efficacy of the test on stroke patients tested directly in ambulances and helicopters.

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#14

Automated, disposable sample preparation cartridge for Complementary Diagnostics

S. F. Graf, T. Volden, V. Revol

CSEM SA, Untere Gründlistrasse 1, 6055 Alpnach Dorf

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Within the European Project BIOCDx , a Point-Of-Care (PoC) solution has been developed to measure the concentration of four biomarkers in the pg to ng range per ml out of whole blood. A single drop of blood from a needle prick is enough to obtain a complete signature indicative of cancer progression. The current system is developed as a Complementary Diagnostics to allow patient stratification and support therapy monitoring for prostate and breast cancer. The CSEM contributed to this success by developing a disposable cartridge and associated liquid actuation module that enable to run and monitor the complete workflow. With our solution the patient’s whole blood sample is automatically preprocessed to plasma and metered for the subsequent optical measurement and finally collected in the on-cartridge waste before the disposal. All reagents are prefilled in the cartridge and all liquids remain entirely in the cartridge, avoiding contamination risk.

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#15

Drug Discovery Platform for Musculoskeletal Diseases

Main Applicant and Research Partner: ZHAW, Wädenswil, Dr. Markus Rimann, Michael Nosswitz / Main Implementation Partner: LIS (Life Imaging Services), Basel, Dr. Franco Del Principe, Dr. Andreas P. Baader / Research Partner: CSEM (Centre suisse d’éléctronique et de microtechnique), Neuchâtel, Dr. Vincent Revol, Dr. Jonas Goldowsky/ Implementation Partner: Weidmann Medical Technology, Rapperswil, Daniel Marty / Application Partner: Novartis, Basel, Dr. Hansjörg Keller
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There is an immense medical need for treatments of degenerative muscle diseases in our aging societies. Currently, no robust medium throughput in vitro human skeletal muscle model exists to assess drug effects on muscle contraction. The goal of the project is to develop an automated platform for the production, cultivation, stimulation and analysis of in vitro human skeletal muscle tissues for drug development. Functional 3D muscle tissues are bioprinted in a specialized 24 well plate, in which the tissues are electrically stimulated. Post displacement caused by muscle contractions are optically monitored. This system will allow assessing drug effects, via monitoring contraction differences, thus offering an alternative to animal experimentation.

Scientific Poster session jury
Samantha Paoletti (CSEM)
Silvia Anghel (Medidee)
Christelle Steiger (Laboratoire Salamin)
Jakob Weber (
BÜHLMANN Laboratories)
Michel Rossier (Hôpital du Valais – Institut Central des Hôpitaux (ICH))
Bruno Schnyder (HES-SO Valais)

TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF POSTER SESSION FOR THE SWISS SYMPOSIUM IN POINT-OF-CARE DIAGNOSTICS 2020:

Successfully submitted abstract will be acknowledged via an e-mail with a poster number, which should be quoted in all correspondence. Allow at least 48 hours for your receipt to be returned to you.
Once the abstracts is accepted, at least one of the authors must register for and present at the symposium. Abstracts of all accepted contributions will be included within the abstract book, which will be distributed to all registered conference participants.